Rods and Cones
There are two types of photoreceptors in the retina, namely, rods and cones.
In fact, millions and millions of photoreceptors are there in the retina that make the bulk of it.
These photoreceptors turn the light rays falling on them into electrical impulses, that then travel along the optic nerve to the brain where they are turned back into visual images again.
Photoreceptors are of two types:
There are three types of cones - the red cones making the bulk of color perception to the tune of 64%, the green cones making it to 32%, and the blue cones limited to only the rest 2% left; but these blue ones are the most sensitive ones, and unlike red and green, lie outside the fovea.
Color blindness is a malfunction of the retina. Retina converts light energy into electrical energy that is then transmitted to the brain through the optic nerve. This conversion is accomplished by two types of photoreceptor cells in the retina: rods and cones.
Now the cones are the color encoders. Each one of them contains visual pigments sensitive to one of the three, color wavelengths - red, green, and blue. All the colors can be synthesized by mixing three of them.
If any one of them is absent or doesn't function properly in the cone cells of a person, it results in color vision deficiency. Red - green deficiency is common; blue deficiency is rare.
Common Types of Color Vision Deficiency:
Let's try to get a feel of how these different types perceive the colorful world that this ours is!
Okay, the cones are less light sensitive than the rods, but they are responsible for color vision as well as the highest resolution vision!
Now the rods, employing a sensitive photo-pigment called rhodopsin, are more light sensitive as well as more in number, although not color-sensitive.
Hence they provide a much better peripheral vision - better known as scotopic vision - required for tracking motion in wide-angled field of vision.
On the other hand, the cones provide a much better visual acuity when directly looking at the point of visual interest - better known as perfect central vision, requiring central fixation of the eye or third eye opening for the purpose of aquiring a flaw-less vision!
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